battle of haiphong 1974

[58] During the same time period, the RVNAF lost ten aircraft. [34] The plan had been shelved at the time as too extreme, but it was not forgotten. [30] PAVN forces entered the city on the same day as the meeting between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho. [4] This three-division force caught the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and their American allies unprepared. The B-52s were then withdrawn from operations in the north, and when they returned in June, their missions would be limited to the southern panhandle. "[35] The mines were activated five days after their delivery in order to allow any vessels then in port to escape without damage. These strikes were conducted in support of ARVN forces, and included those of the air wings of the carriers Coral Sea and Hancock. While seemingly routine, the seizure of the ship was the beginning of a chain of unfortunate events. Also contributing to the parity was a lack of air combat training against dissimilar aircraft, a deficient early warning system, and ECM pod formations that mandated strict adherence to formation flying. [37] The next day, Nixon shook the hand of Soviet Foreign Trade Minister Nikolai Patolichev at the White House. U.S. intelligence analysts believed that PAVN had enough stockpiled supplies to sustain their campaigns throughout the autumn. From 1974 to 1978, he served as the senior uniformed officer in the U.S. Navy and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under three Presidents; Nixon, Ford and Carter. On 12 April, the PAVN struck again, this time moving in from eastern Laos and seizing a series of border outposts around Đắk Tô in Kon Tum Province in the Central Highlands. [24] Between 1 May and 30 June B-52s, fighter-bombers, and gunships had flown 18,000 sorties against formidable AAA defenses with the loss of 29 aircraft. Between March and May, B-52 sortie rates had climbed from 700 to 2,200 per month and the big bombers had dropped 57,000 tons of bombs in Quảng Trị Province alone. Although both Moscow and Beijing publicly denounced the American operation, they were not willing to jeopardize their thawing relationship with the U.S. and Hanoi's requests for support and aid from its socialist allies met with only cool responses. Air Force and Navy commanders and pilots were relieved that Nixon (unlike President Johnson) left the operational planning to local commanders and loosened the targeting restrictions that had hampered Operation Rolling Thunder. That leaves 31 foreign merchant ships still in Haiphong, 12 of them flying Soviet flags, five Communist Chinese, three Hong Kong-based British craft, three Polish vessels, two Cubans, one East German and five under the flag of Somalia. Both bridges had previously been attacked unsuccessfully with conventional bombs and even missiles. By 6 April, at naval and air bases around the globe, American forces were put on alert and ships and aircraft squadrons began moving toward Southeast Asia. Armed clashes immediately broke out on land between French and Vietnamese nationalists. Michel, p. 317 note 2. They were protected from attack by North Vietnamese MiG fighters by the guided-missile cruisers Chicago and Long Beach, several destroyers including the guided missile destroyer Berkeley, and by flights of F-4 Phantoms. The torpedo boats were described as … [24] Between 1 May and 30 June B-52s, fighter-bombers, and gunships had flown 18,000 sorties against formidable anti-aircraft defenses with the loss of 29 aircraft. [53], Air Force historian Earl Tilford has written that Linebacker was "a watershed in aerial warfare...it was the first modern aerial campaign in which precision guided munitions changed the way in which air power was used. The Battle of Xa Cam My was a battle of the Vietnam War fought over two days from April 11–12, 1966. [64], Between 10 May and 23 October 1972, the United States lost a total of 134 aircraft either over the north or as a direct result of Linebacker missions. On 27 August 1972. [2], Linebacker had played a crucial role in blunting the northern offensive by drying up its vital sources of supply. Division 303 activated 19 Aug 1974 (briefly designated Division 3), with VC Regiments 201, 205 and 271 and NVA Artillery Regiment 262. On 5 May, Nixon ordered the Joint Chiefs to prepare to execute the aerial mining portion of the Duck Hook plan within three days under the operational title Pocket Money. [13], U.S. Air Force tactical strikes against North Vietnam north of the 20th parallel were authorized on 5 April under the nickname Freedom Train. St. Martin's Press.          Sexual Content The battle involved the deployment of North Vietnam's 4th Army Corps for the first time, against determined units of the South Vietnamese Army in Phuoc Long, under the command of Lieutenant General Du Quoc Dong.. On December 12, 1974, the North … [35] The mines were activated five days after their delivery in order to allow any vessels then in port to escape without damage. [23], By mid-month, nearly all of North Vietnam had been cleared for bombing raids for the first time in over three years. Losses are enumerated by date, aircraft type and serial number, and crew members. Later, intelligence analysts credited Newport News with destroying one boat, Rowan with damaging a second, and the A-7 with “possibly sinking” a third. [18] The U.S. Navy's Task Force 77 (stationed in the Gulf of Tonkin), had four aircraft carriers assigned to it, but only two were available at any one time to conduct operations. Gone were Hanoi's demands for the ouster of South Vietnamese President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu and his replacement by a coalition government in which the Viet Cong would participate. Driscoll). The U.S. Navy had also been updating its own contingency plans for just such a mining operation since 1965. [17] Another 114 fighter-bombers were located at bases in Thailand. From 1954 to 1975, Hai Phong served as the most important maritime city of North Vietnam, and it became one of direct-controlled municipalities of … "[28] The North Vietnamese, sensing victory, were in no mood to make concessions. [9] The Pentagon was not unduly alarmed and the U.S. WHEBN0029158771 Its purpose was to halt or slow the transportation of supplies and materials for the Nguyen Hue Offensive (known in the West as the Easter Offensive), an invasion of the South Vietnam by forces of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) that had been launched on 30 March. PAVN had evolved into a conventional military force, and such a force depended upon a complex logistical system, which made it vulnerable to aerial attack. Linebacker was the first continuous bombing effort conducted against North Vietnam since the end of Operation Rolling Thunder in November 1968. [32], Shortly after his inauguration, Nixon had ordered the preparation of a contingency plan, one that would hopefully bring the Vietnam War to an end. 83 B-52 bombers were stationed at U-Tapao RTAFB, Thailand and at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. On 12 April, the PAVN struck again, this time moving in from eastern Laos and seizing a series of border outposts around Dak To in Kon Tum Province in the Central Highlands. The Battle of Hamburger Hill was fought between the U.S. and ARVN against PAVN forces from May 10 to 20, 1969. [10] The Pentagon was not unduly alarmed and the U.S. "[26] On 20 April Kissinger met secretly with Brezhnev in Moscow. [53], During and immediately following the PAVN offensive, U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps aviators had flown 18,000 sorties in the four northern provinces of South Vietnam and dropped 40,000 tons of ordnance in the defense of An Lộc. On 5 April, a PAVN force of 20,000 crossed the border from their sanctuaries in Cambodia in another three-division, combined arms force to attack Bình Long Province, north of Saigon. Yes No | Share this "[29], On 27 April, ARVN defenses in Quảng Trị Province began to collapse. [22] By 12 April, President Nixon had informed Kissinger that he had decided on a more comprehensive bombing campaign which would include strikes against both Hanoi and Haiphong. Shelling by PAVN artillery dropped off by one-half between 9 May and 1 June. [33] Operation Duck Hook was to include an invasion of the north itself and included a proposal to mine its major harbors. Content is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. 104 were lost in combat and 30 were destroyed in operational accidents. [47] During August, however, the introduction of real-time early warning systems, increased aircrew combat experience, and degraded North Vietnamese ground control interception capabilities reversed the trend to a more favorable 4:1 kill ratio. Between 10 May and 23 October 1972, the United States lost a total of 134 aircraft either over the north or as a direct result of Linebacker missions. At the beginning of 1972, the U.S. Air Force had only three squadrons of F-4s and a single squadron of A-37s, a total of 76 aircraft, stationed in South Vietnam. Palace Cobra: A Fighter Pilot in the Vietnam Air War. In 1888, the president of the French Third Republic Sadi Carnot promulgated a decree to establish Hai Phong city. This once again placed Hanoi and Haiphong off-limits, and halted Linebacker operations. ARVN forces then fell back, and a race began between both belligerents to the bridges at Đông Hà and Cam Lộ. [50], Although Linebacker was largely carried out by air, naval forces were also deployed to provide counter battery fire against enemy targets along the coast and other important logistical areas and in support of ground troops. President Richard M. Nixon's first response was to consider a three-day attack by B-52 Stratofortress bombers on Hanoi and the port city of Haiphong. By 4 April, ARVN officers had patched together a defensive line that held the PAVN at bay, but it was only a temporary respite. It was one of the few ship-to-ship naval battles of the war. [53] The diplomatic impasse was broken and Nixon ordered a halt to all bombing above the 20th parallel on 23 October and on 26 October Kissinger announced that "peace is at hand." [49], Although Linebacker was largely carried out by air, naval forces were also deployed to provide counter battery fire against enemy targets along the Ho Chi Minh Trail and other important logistical areas and in support of ground troops. [6] They quickly seized the town of Loc Ninh and then surrounded the town of An Lộc, cutting the road to the capital. Both bridges had previously been attacked unsuccessfully with conventional bombs and even missiles. Article Id: Between March and May, B-52 sortie rates had climbed from 700 to 2,200 per month and they had dropped 57,000 tons of bombs in Quảng Trị Province alone. In addition to interdicting the road and rail system of North Vietnam, Linebacker also systematically attacked its air defense system. Twelve days later, Captain Charles B. DeBellevue (who had been Ritchie's backseater during four of his five victories) downed two more MiGs, bringing his total to six. "[44] In total, 41,653 Linebacker missions dropped 155,548 tons of bombs. This raid, which took place off the Do Son Peninsula and Cat Ba Island area at the entrance to Haiphong Harbor was carried out by Task Unit 77.1.2., which included four ships, USS Newport News (CA 148), an 8-inch gun cruiser; USS Providence (CLG 6), a 6-inch gun missile cruiser; USS Robison (DDG 12), a guided-missile destroyer; and USS Rowan (DD 782) a Gearing class destroyer. [12], Both Nixon and Kissinger considered a plan offered by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to be both unimaginative and lacking in aggressiveness. Their air wings totaled approximately 140 aircraft.[18]. China alone shipped an average of 22,000 tons of supplies a month over two rail lines and eight major roads that linked it with North Vietnam. "[44], The Linebacker missions included the first widespread use of precision-guided munitions, including electro-optical and laser-guided bombs. [32], Shortly after his inauguration, Nixon had ordered the preparation of a contingency plan, one that would hopefully bring the Vietnam War to an end. The People's Republic of China alone shipped an average of 22,000 tons of supplies a month over two rail lines and eight major roads that linked it with North Vietnam. [46] In contrast, the Air Force experienced a 1:1 kill ratio through the first two months of the campaign, as seven of its eventual 24 Linebacker air-to-air losses occurred without any corresponding VPAF loss in a twelve-day period between 24 June and 5 July. Holloway served with honor and distinction for 36 years. Both before and during Pocket Money, Nixon and Kissinger had worried about the Soviet and Chinese reaction to the escalation. Hanoi had initiated the offensive to coincide with the winter monsoon, when continuous rain and low cloud cover made air support difficult. Another four were destroyed between the capital and Haiphong, including the notorious "Dragon's Jaw" that spanned the Song Ma River near Thanh Hóa. At the beginning of 1972, the U.S. Air Force had only three squadrons of F-4 Phantoms and a single squadron of A-37 Dragonflys, a total of 76 aircraft, stationed in South Vietnam. [55], During and immediately following the PAVN offensive, U.S. Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps aviators had flown 18,000 sorties in the four northern provinces of South Vietnam and dropped 40,000 tons of ordnance in the Battle of An Lộc. American and South Vietnamese Air Force (VNAF) aircraft had been supporting the defense (weather permitting) since the inception of the offensive. These strikes were conducted in support of ARVN forces, and included those of the air wings of the carriers USS Coral Sea and USS Hancock. On 13 October another weapons officer, Captain Jeffrey S. Feinstein, was credited with his fifth MiG, making him the final Air Force ace. ISBN 978-0-312-35356-8., pp. After the bombardment, the ships were threatened by four Russian-built torpedo boats. "[28] The North Vietnamese, sensing victory, were in no mood to make concessions. William P. Driscoll became the first U.S. air aces of the Vietnam War when they shot down their fifth MiG. It was one of the few ship-to-ship naval battles of the war.[50]. SYND 5-5-72 AFTERMATH OF BOMBING ON HAIPHONG - Duration: 1:09. [49] The meetings produced new concessions from Hanoi which promised to end the deadlock that had plagued negotiations since their inception in 1968. [60] Air Force General Robert N. Ginsburgh, of the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force, summed up the attitudes of U.S. commanders by remarking that Linebacker had "a greater impact in its first four months of operation than Rolling Thunder had in three and one-half years. By 6 April, at naval and air bases around the globe, American forces were put on alert and ships and aircraft squadrons began moving toward Southeast Asia. The defending South Vietnamese division retreats. PAVN had evolved into a conventional military force, and such a force depended upon a complex logistical system, which made it vulnerable to aerial attack. [21] The Navy cut short its in-port period for the carriers USS Kitty Hawk and USS Constellation and ordered USS Midway, USS America and USS Saratoga to augment the fleet so that four or more carrier air wings could conduct missions simultaneously. One such operation was Operation Lion's Den, or "The Battle of Haiphong Harbor". [55], From the beginning of Freedom Train in April to the end of June 1972 the United States lost 52 aircraft over North Vietnam: 17 to missiles; 11 to anti-aircraft weapons; three to small arms fire; 14 to MiGs; and seven to unknown causes. [6] Although the conventional attack by the PAVN, which included the extensive use of armor and heavy artillery, riveted the attention of the allies on the northern provinces, it was only the first of three such operations that were launched that spring. "[54] It succeeded, where Rolling Thunder had failed, he claimed, for three reasons: Nixon was decisive in his actions and gave the military greater latitude in targeting; American airpower was forcefully and appropriately used; and the immense difference in the technology utilized made Linebacker the first bombing campaign in a "new era" of aerial warfare. [5] The PAVN force struck the defensive positions of the ARVN 3rd Division and threw it into disarray. [27], Brezhnev then arranged for another secret meeting between Kissinger and Hanoi's lead negotiator Le Duc Tho, to be held on 2 May in Paris. Haiphong Harbor in company with the Seventh Fleet command ship, USS Oklahoma City, USS Richard B. Anderson and USS Hamner. This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. [49] On 28 August, the Air Force gained its first ace when Captain Richard S. Ritchie downed his fifth enemy aircraft. Ellsberg told the Niemans he learned of a 1969 plan to mine Haiphong from an article in the July 1974 issue of the Washington Monthly, written … Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002. The Chinese, who had previously hoped that a long war in Southeast Asia would bleed both the Americans and their Vietnamese neighbors, now feared that a decline in American power would deprive them of a counterweight to the Soviet Union. [12], U.S. Air Force tactical strikes against North Vietnam north of the 20th parallel were authorized on 5 April under the nickname Freedom Train. [15] The number of combat aircraft stationed in Southeast Asia was less than half that of its peak strength in 1968–1969. 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